Trishna – Is it just thirst?

Tṛṣṇa is often translated as ‘thirst’. This is often misunderstood or not understood at all. Is it just thirst? What is it?

Tṛṣṇa – it is āgneya vyādhi wherein agni vaiṣamya takes place. It is defined as “tālu prapannam janayed pipāsa”. what is pipāsa? – pipāsa is not thirst. Thirst is a need for something eg. Water. If that need is in the tālu it is tṛṣṇa – [What is tālu? tālu is the region of śrṅghāṭaka marma – what is this marma? – it is a sirā marma] In other words it is crying of the drying nerves coming from the tālu. Now, what is the name of the disease in nānātmaja where the siras are involved? – see sirā graha. It is defined as “raktam āśritya pavanaḥ”. sirā vyādhi is a nānātmaja vyadhi where the ātma guṇa of vāta is affected. It is kevala vataja and sira is affected. Further, “kuryān mūrdhatarā sirāḥ rūkṣāḥ”. It means śoṣaṇa and it is a cry from the mūrdha tara sirā. Any śoṣa (depletion) of the mūrdhatara siras can be called tṛṣṇa. It is not just thirst. Thirst is a normal physiological phenomenon.

The proper method to study the ancient texts – tantra yukti

Tantra yukti is the methodology and technique which enables one to compose and interpret scientific treatises correctly and intelligently. It is the systematic approach to a scientific subject that enables one to clearly elucidate the matter in hand.

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Tantra yukti ( Suśruta 32 – Caraka & Vāgbhaṭa 36 – Cakrapāṇi 40 in number)

  1. Adhikaraṇa (subject matter)
  2. Yoga (arrangement)
  3. Hetvārtha (extention of argument)
  4. Padārtha (import of words)
  5. Pradeśa (poetic adumbration)
  6. Uddheśa (concise statement)
  7. Nirdeśa (amplification)
  8. Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis)
  9. Prayojana (purpose)
  10. Upadeśa (instruction)
  11. Apadeśa (advancement of reason)
  12. Atideśa (indication)
  13. Arthāpatti (implication)
  14. Nirṇaya (decision)
  15. Prasaṅga (restatement)
  16. Ekānta (categorical statement)
  17. Naikānta / anekānta / anekārtha (comprising statement)
  18. Apavarga / apavarja (exception)
  19. Viparyaya (opposite)
  20. Pūrvapakṣa (objection)
  21. Vidhāna (right interpretation)
  22. Anumata (concession)
  23. Vyākhyāna (explanation)
  24. Samśaya (doubt)
  25. Atītāpekṣaṇa / atītavekṣaṇa (retrospective reference)
  26. Anāgatāvekṣaṇa (prospective reference)
  27. Svasaṁjñā (technical nomenclature)
  28. Ūhya (deduction)
  29. Samuccaya (specification)
  30. Nidarśana (illustration)
  31. Nirvacana (definition)
  32. Niyoga / sanniyoga (injunction)
  33. Vikalpana (option)
  34. Pratyutsāra / pratyucāra (rebuttal)
  35. Uddhāra (reaffirmation)
  36. Sambhava (possibility)
  37. Paripraśna (question and answer)
  38. Vyākaraṇa (grammar)
  39. Vyutkrāntabhidāna (transgression)
  40. Hetu (purpose)

A book or course should also be equipped with 18 tantra guṇas (merits) and devoid of 15 tantra doṣas (demerits).

Ama avastha of each dosha and dhatu

Sāma vāta: (the opposite are symptoms of nirāma avastha)

  • Vibandha
  • Agnisāda
  • Stambha
  • Āntrakūjanam
  • Vedana
  • Śopha
  • Nistoda
  • Kramaśa aṅgāni pīḍayan
  • Tandrā
  • Staimitya
  • Gaurava
  • Snigdhatva
  • Arocaka
  • Ālasya
  • Śaitya
  • Agnihāni
  • Kaṭu rūkṣa abhilāṣa

 

Sāma pitta:

  • Durgandhi
  • Haritam
  • Śyāvam
  • Amlam
  • Ghanam
  • Guru
  • Āmlikā
  • Kaṇṭha hṛd dāha karam

 

Sāma kapha:

  • Āvilaḥ (turbidity) – of stool urine and other waste
  • Tantulaḥ (thready)
  • Sthānaḥ (thick)
  • Kaṇṭha deśa avatiṣṭhate (located in throat)
  • Balāso durgandha (very strongly bad smell)
  • Kṣud (lack of appetite)
  • Udgāra

 

Sāma rasa:

  • Aśraddhā
  • Aruci
  • Āsya vairasya
  • Aratimara samjñata ??
  • Hṛllāsa
  • Gaurava
  • Tandrā
  • Angamarda (body ache)
  • Jvara
  • Tamaḥ
  • Pāṇḍu
  • Srotorodha
  • Klaibya
  • Angasāda
  • Kṛśata
  • Agni nāśa
  • Valita (greying of hair)
  • Palita (wrinkles)

 

Sāma rakta:

  • Kuṣṭha
  • Visarpa
  • Piṭikā (pidakā)
  • Rakta pitta
  • Asṛgdara
  • Guda pāka
  • Meḍhra pāka
  • Āsya pāka
  • Plīha
  • Gulma
  • Vidradhi
  • Nīlikā
  • Kāmalā
  • Vyanga
  • Viplava
  • Tilakālaka
  • Dadru
  • Carmadala
  • Śvitra
  • Pāmā
  • Koṭha
  • Rakta maṇḍala

 

Sāma māmsa:

  • Adhimāmsa
  • Arbuda
  • Kīla (gudakīla)
  • Galaśālūka (inflammation of uvula)
  • Śunḍīka (tonsillitis)
  • Pūtīmāmsa
  • Alajī
  • Gaṇḍa
  • Gaṇḍamālā
  • Upajihvikā

 

Sāma medas:

  • Pracakṣmahe aṣṭa-ninditāni (AH. Śā. 3.106)
    • Aroma (hairless) x atiroma
    • Asita (black) x sita
    • Sthūla (obese) x kṛśa
    • Dīrgha (tall) x hrasva
  • Prameha pūrvarūpa (AH. Ni. 10. 38-39)
    • Svedoṅgagandha
    • Śithilatvamange
    • Śayyāsana
    • Svapna sukhābhiṣaṅga
    • Hrd, netra, jihvā, śravaṇa upadeha
    • Ghanāṅgatā
    • Keśa nakha ativṛddhi
    • Śīta priyatvam
    • Gala tālu śoṣa
    • Mādhuryam āsya
    • Kara pāda dāha
    • Mūtre abhidhāvanti pipīlikā

 

Sāma asthi:

  • Adhyasthi dantau
  • Dantāsthi bheda
  • Śūlam
  • Vivarṇatā
  • Keśa loma nakha śmaśru doṣa

 

Sāma majja:

  • Ruk parvāṇi
  • Bhrama
  • Mūrcchā
  • Darśanam tamas
  • Aruṣām sthūla mūlānām parvajānām (pustules with immovable base)

Sāma śukra

  • Klaibya
  • Aharṣaṇam
  • Rogī (always sick), Klība alpāyu virūpam prajāyate (progeny is constantly sick, impotent, short lived, disfigured)
  • Na jāyate garbha (not forming an embryo)
  • Patati prasava (miscarriage)

Sthana samsraya of doshas in Ashtanga Sangraha

Diseases produced by Vāta in sthāna samśraya:

  • Pakvāśaya – śūla, ānāha, antra kūjanam, mala rodha, aśmari, vardhma, arśas, trika pṛṣṭha kaṭī graha, adhara kaya kṛcchra upadrava
  • Āmāśaya – tṛṭ, vamathu, śvāsa, kāsa, viṣūcikā, kaṇṭhoparodha, udgāra, nābhīn ūrdhvam vyādhi
  • Śrotra – indriya vadha
  • Tvaca – sphuṭana, rūkṣata
  • Rakta – tīvra ruja, svāpa, tāpa, rāga, vivarṇata, arūmṣi, annasya viṣṭambha, aruci, krśata, bhrama
  • Māmsa & medas – granthi, toda, dārḍhya, karkaśa, bhrama, anga gaurava, ati ruk, stabdha, muṣṭi daṇḍa hatopamam
  • Asthi – sakti sandhi asthi śūla, tīvra bala kṣayam
  • Majja – asthi sauṣiryam, asvapnam, santatam rujam
  • Śukra – śīghram utsargam, sangam, garbhasya vikṛti
  • Sirā –
  • Snāyu – gṛdhrasi, āyāma, kubjata
  • Sandhi – vāta pūrṇa, dṛti sparśam, śopham, prasāraṇa ākuñcana pravṛtti sa-vedana
  • Sarvāṅga samśraya – toda, bheda, sphuraṇa, bhañjana, stambhana, ākṣepaṇa, svāpa, sandhi ākuñcana, kampana

 

Diseases produced by Pitta in sthāna samśraya: (AH. Sū. 19. 16-19)

  • Tvaca – visphoṭa, masūrikā
  • Rakta – visarpa, dāha
  • Māmsa – māmsa pāka, koṭhana
  • Medas – dāha, granthi, sveda, tṛṣṇa, udvamanam
  • Asthi – dāha bhṛśam,
  • Majja – hāridra nakha netratām
  • Śukra – pūti, pīta avabhāsam śukram
  • Sirā – krodha, pralāpa
  • Snāyu – tṛṣṇa
  • Koṣṭha – mada, tṛṭ, dāha, anya yakṣmaṇa

 

Diseases produced by Kapha in sthāna samśraya: (AS. Sū. 19. 20-24)

  • Tvaca – stambham, śveta avabhāsata
  • Rakta (śoṇita) – pāṇḍu
  • Māmsa – arbuda, apacī, ati-gaurava, ārdra carmavanadhābha gātratām
  • Medas – sthaulya, meha
  • Asthi – stabdhatva
  • Majja – śukla netratva
  • Śukra – śukra sañcayam, vibandham, gauravam (viscous)
  • Sirā – stabdha gātrata
  • Snāyu – sandhi śūlatvam
  • Koṣṭha – jaṭhara unnati, arocaka, avipāka, other kapha related illnesses

Word of the week – 28th April 2016

Kleda – (m) śarīrastham jalam, dravadravya viśeṣo vā [the water element situated in the body (moisture), or a description of liquid substances (CS. Sū. 26.43 (6))

āhāra-pariṇāma-bhāva-viśeṣaḥ (a state of transformation of the food); anna-śaithilya-pādanam tasya karma (its function is to soften the food) – CS. Śā. 6.95

A synonym = ārdratvam – wetness – SS. Sū. 18.21

śoṇitādi-vikāraḥ – (malārdratvam) – a disease of the dhātus beginning with rakta, the malas becoming increasingly wet

a pathological syndrome in the body characterized by wetness or phlegm like consistency – CS. Sū. 17. 84

The amazing “Dhanyamla dhara”

Dhanyamla dhara (fermented decoction of a mixture of many grains boiled in water) is one of the most widely employed and most effective treatments in Kerala for kapha associated vata diseases with ama. It is the pouring of a type of sour liquid which is sharp, hot, pitta increasing, cool to touch, igniting the digestive fire, light and pleasing.
Though it is not easy to make dhanyamla in the western countries, a simple alternative method is to take vinegar, dilute it to the concentration you need and use it in the same way.

Vata foods, Pitta foods and Kapha foods

I have often had people sending me charts from the internet with so many questions about – avoiding the vata foods, avoiding the pitta foods etc… Within my limited understanding, these are only theoretical ideas.
Practically speaking, no food needs to be completely avoided. Whether to eat it or not will depend on factors like agni (digestive ability), season, type of food, prakrti, vikrti, satmya etc among others which are never constant.
I believe that a water tight compartmentalized system of completely avoiding any particular food, ascribing it to a certain dosha, is not so Ayurvedic and can eventually cause health problems unless the beneficial aspects of that food are being compensated by another food that is being consumed.

Groups of dravyas in Ashtanga Hrdayam

Ashtanga Hridayam describes 33 groups (ganas) of medicinal substances (dravyas).
1. Madanādi gaṇa – for vamana (21)
2. Nikumbhādi gaṇa – for virecana (13)
3. Madanakuṭajādi – for nirūhāha vasti (23)
4. Vellāpamārgādi – for nasya (15)
5. Bhadradārvādi – vāta hara (15)
6. Durvādi – pitta hara (13)
7. Āragvadhādi – kapha hara (7 groups)
8. Jīvanīya (10)
9. Vidāryādi (20)
10. Śāribādi (also known as śāribośīrādi) (8)
11. Patmaka-puṇdrādi (also known as patmakādi) (7)
12. Parūṣakādi (10)
13. Phalinyamāmsyādi (7)
14. Paṭolādi (6)
15. Guḍūcyādi (5)
16. Āragvadhādi (20)
17. Asanādi (23)
18. Varaṇādi (16)
19. Ūṣakādi (7)
20. Vīratarādi (20)
21. Lodhrādi (13)
22. Arkālarkādi (14)
23. Surasādi (18)
24. Muṣkakasnūhyādi (9)
25. Vatsakamūrvādi (23)
26. Vacādi (6)
27. Haridrādi (5)
28. Priyangvādi (10)
29. Ambaṣṭādi (11)
30. Musta vacādi (8)
31. Nyagrodādi (20)
32. Elādi (27)
33. Śyāmādi (18)

Astrology and Ayurveda

Yukti vyapāśraya (logical treatment approach) is the prime tool of a Vaidya. When the cikitsa applied according to proper yukti fails to produce results, the vedic tradition attributes the same to pūrvāparādha or karma (adverse reactions to previous inappropriate actions).
At this time there is the need for someone to intervene in order to remove the obstruction in making the yukti work. This is where the application of jyotish comes into the arena of therapeutic application. Once the karma is identified, there are two ways to deal with it – 1. Wait for the karma to undergo pāka (digestion) on its own or 2. Perform the necessary prāyaścitta (atonement) to clear the karma which is done by a priest who knows the rituals.
After this the patient has to return to the Vaidya to continue the yukti vyapāśraya cikitsa which will be effective. Yukti is what causes the balancing of doṣa, dhātu etc and the others are meant to remove the obstacles that prevent the working of yukti.
Similarly sattva-va-jaya cikitsa (psychological techniques) encompasses techniques to be employed when the mind becomes excessively negative and blocked, being covered by rajas and tamas. This begins to affect the body also.
In that case, dhī (intellectual insight), dhairya (patience) and ātmādi vijñānam (spiritual insight) are to be employed by the Vaidya in conjunction with yukti. Otherwise yukti will not work due to blocks in the srotas (channels) caused by the manoduṣṭi (aberrations of the mental pathways or negative thought processes).

Prognosis of skin diseases – Ayurveda

Prognosis of ‪#‎skin‬ disease in ‪#‎Ayurveda‬:
Involvement of all three doshas + asthi, majja and shukra dhatus = fatal
Involvement of medas = incurable but not fatal (can be controlled with continuous treatment)
dual dosha involvement (and one of them is pitta) + rakta & mamsa = cures with difficulty
Involvement of kapha & vata / localized only in the skin / single dosha involvement = easily cured.